"99.9 percent of the Universe is made up of plasma,"
If you use super-computing capabilities to apply the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (the basic laws governing the forces and interactions of electric and magnetic fields) to huge ensembles of charged particles, (called PIC - Particle In Cell simulation) so you supersize to a galactic scale so to speak you get this shape....
A galaxy is made of stars (not charged) and gas. This gas (hidrogen and helium) is mainly neutral charged, exept for a 1% (or less) of the hidrogen. So this simulations don't apply for galaxy formation.
says Dr. Dennis Gallagher, a plasma physicist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlin ... ep99_1.htm
"Most of the gas in interstellar space is ionized (astronomers can tell by the wavelengths of light the gas absorbs and emits), and all of the gas in stars in ionized, that's where the 99% comes from."
Source: Nasa "Cosmicopia" http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_cr.html#plasma
Stars are nothing but huge balls of plasma....They all are charged!!!! The Sun is charged, Earth is charged, The Moon is charged... We have measured this and we have even found the Earth is in a direct circuit with the Sun. I provided this previously in another post. They all have Heliospheres caused by this charge!!!!
The space between stars is (interslellar medium) made of plasma....
Source: "Fluid Dynamics and Dynamos in Astrophysics and Geophysics" - A M Soward 2005 http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0 ... ADRDGXo-jQ
A state of matter characterized by unbound negative electrons and positive ions that may conduct electrical current. Plasma is often called the fourth state of matter, along with the other three: solids, liquids, and gases. It is estimated that more than 99 percent of matter in the universe exists as plasma; examples include stars, nebulae, and interstellar particles."
Source: "Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth" by National Research Council (U.S.), Published 2004 National Academies Press http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_ ... 6&page=188
In fact all these sorces confirm this as it is common knowledge and scientific fact!!:
"The Solar System" edited by ThÃƒÂ©rÃƒÂ¨se Encrenaz, Published 2004 Springer Page 1
"Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications", by Donald A. Gurnett, Published 2005 Cambridge University Press Page 2
"Space charge modes in the magnetized discharge with dust", New Vistas in Dusty Plasmas: Fourth International Conference on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas. Cramer, N. F.; Vladimirov, S. V., AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 799, pp. 561-564 (2005)
"Plasma Physics: Proceedings of the 1997 Latin American Workshop : VII LAWPP 97", by Julio Puerta, Pablo MartÃƒÂn, Published 1999 Springer Page 57
"Analytical and Numerical Methods for Wave Propagation in Fluid Media" By Krzysztof. Murawski, Published 2002 World Scientific, Page 14
"Plasma Physics: Basic Theory with Fusion Applications", by Masashiro Wakatani, KyÃ…